Education System in India| The SATH-E Experience: Systemic Transformation of School Education

Agenda Annual Reports India Today

History of Education in India

India is already the mainstay pillar of education. Some centuries ago, India had big universities like Nalanda University, Taxila University, Valabhi University, students from all over the world used to come to study.

In British India, the British introduced English education by force and forced them to take English education by force. However, Gandhiji boycotted English education in Ahsarkar’s movement. and insisted on taking education in the provincial language in India

Modern Education System in India

The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15), and higher secondary (17 and 18). The lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three, and higher secondary into two.

NITI Aayog Report

India has the largest school footprint in the world with about 15 lakh schools having a total enrolment of
over 26 crores students1 A decade since the implementation of the Right to Education (RTE) Act, we
have reaped strong success in providing near-universal access to education with over 96%2
enrollment maintained for students in age group 6-10 years.

However, findings from surveys measuring student learning outcomes consistently reflect that universal
access has not translated into improved quality of education. Annual Status of Education Report (ASER)
2019 analysis showed that over 60% of Grade I students struggle to do an oral word problem involving
1-digit addition.

Further, only 50%3 children in Grade III can read Grade I level text, implying that
nearly half of all students in Grade III are at least two years behind their grade level. The National
Achievement Survey (NAS) also cautions that average scores across several grades and subjects are as
low as 40-50%

Academic Challenges

  • Focus on rote-based versus competency-based learning
  • Weak remedial programs that are not designed to cater to varied learning levels
  • Weak assessments and no means to track real-time & granular learning data
  • Teacher capacity constraints and inadequate trainings to address them

The SATH-E Experience: Systemic Transformation of School Education

As seen in the previous sections, there is vast multiplicity and interconnectedness in the challenges
faced by the Indian education system today.

Thus, a systemic approach is essential in designing
transformative reforms. There is a need to shift from small-scale pilots to State-wide implementation
at scale and from only academic to a combination of academic, institutional, and governance reforms.

The SATH-E experience, as well as an examination of reform efforts across other States, has afforded
us the opportunity to derive in-depth insights about what works and what doesn’t. Based on this work,
a new theory of change is proposed based on three principles.

Systemic Transformation of Education – The Interventions

This section lists interventions mapped to the five essential pillars of systemic transformation along
with examples and success stories from the States that have undertaken systemic transformation. A
a detailed description of steps taken and critical factors that support the success of interventions that
have hitherto been undertaken in-depth is presented in the implementation toolkits, with the hope that
it helps provide guidelines for other States that also want to take decisive steps towards reforming their
school education systems.

Official Website:

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New Education policy 2021

NCTE will formulate a new comprehensive national educational framework for teacher training, NCFTE 2021, in consultation with NCERT. As per the policy of the new education system, by 2030, a teacher will require a minimum of B. Ed degree of 4 years for teaching in any institution

The Education Ministry unveiled India’s groundbreaking new education policy. In this video, I analyze the positives and negatives of this policy. I talk about how the multiple streaming options, vocational training has been finally introduced for school students. The 10+2 academic system has been changed to the 5+3+3+4 system. Board exams have been made easier and critical thinking skills and self-evaluation have been imparted in the system. I also talk about the cons of the NEP 2020 like the new language policy where a regional language is to be used as the language of instruction

Indian education minister

The current education minister is Dharmendra Pradhan, a member of the Council of Ministers.

Ministry of Education (India)

Ministry overview
JurisdictionRepublic of India
HeadquartersShastri Bhawan, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, New Delhi
Annual budget₹93,224 crores (US$12 billion) (2021–22)
Minister responsibleDharmendra Pradhan, Cabinet Minister


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